Josiah Bartlett (November 21, 1729 A.D – May 19, 1795 A.D), American physician and statesman, born in Amesbury, Massachusetts, and privately educated. He began medical practice in Kingston, New Hampshire, in 1750 A.D, and in 1754 A.D he successfully introduced Peruvian bark in the treatment of a throat disease, angina maligna.
From 1765 A.D to 1775 A.D Josiah Bartlett served in the New Hampshire legislature. A delegate in 1775 A.D and 1776 A.D to the Continental Congress, he was the first member to vote for the Declaration of Independence and the second—after the president of the Congress, John Hancock—to sign the document.
Bartlett became chief justice of the New Hampshire Court of Common Pleas in 1779 A.D, a judge of the state supreme court in 1784 A.D, and chief justice in 1788 A.D.Josiah Bartlett was president of New Hampshire from 1790 A.D to 1793 A.D, when, under the new constitution, he was elected governor; he retired in 1794 A.D. In 1791 A.D Josiah Bartlett helped found the New Hampshire Medical Society.
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